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Bosnia and Herzegovina


Bosnia and Herzegovina, often simply called Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula. It is known for its diverse cultural heritage, breathtaking natural landscapes, including vast mountains and beautiful rivers, and a complex history marked by periods of peace and conflict. The country is bordered by Croatia to the north, west, and south; Serbia to the east; Montenegro to the southeast; and a short coastline along the Adriatic Sea. Bosnia and Herzegovina’s rich history, varied cultures, and natural beauty make it a fascinating country to study.


Bosnia and Herzegovina covers an area of about 51,197 square kilometers. The country is predominantly mountainous, featuring the Dinaric Alps that stretch along the western border with Croatia. The central and eastern parts of the country are somewhat flatter but still hilly. The highest peak is Maglić, at 2,386 meters (7,828 feet) above sea level, located near the border with Montenegro. Bosnia is also home to several major rivers, including the Bosna, Neretva, and Vrbas, which provide important natural resources and are vital for the country’s agriculture.


The history of Bosnia and Herzegovina is characterized by a series of ruling empires, including the Roman, Byzantine, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian empires, each leaving a distinct cultural and religious imprint on the country. Bosnia declared sovereignty in 1991 and independence from the former Yugoslavia in 1992, which led to the Bosnian War that lasted until 1995. The war had a profound impact on the country’s demographic structure and infrastructure but also led to the strengthening of a national identity that cherishes diversity and resilience.


Bosnia and Herzegovina is a democratic republic that operates under a complex political structure designed to ensure representation for its three main ethnic groups: Bosniaks, Serbs, and Croats. The country is divided into two entities: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (mostly Bosniaks and Croats) and Republika Srpska (mostly Serbs), with a third region, the Brčko District, being a neutral, self-governing administrative unit. The Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina is tripartite, with one member from each ethnic group, rotating chairmanship every eight months.


The economy of Bosnia and Herzegovina is diverse, with a mix of manufacturing, agriculture, and services. Key industries include steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, timber, textiles, and tobacco. Despite significant progress since the 1990s, the country’s economic development has been hampered by political division, a complex regulatory environment, and a high unemployment rate. Tourism is growing, thanks to the country’s natural beauty and historical sites, contributing to economic recovery.


Bosnia and Herzegovina is home to a rich cultural and religious mosaic, with influences from the Ottoman Empire, Austro-Hungarian rule, and Slavic traditions. Its capital, Sarajevo, is known as the “Jerusalem of Europe” because of its historical coexistence of Islamic, Orthodox, Catholic, and Jewish communities. Traditional music, dance, and art are important aspects of Bosnian culture, as is its cuisine, which features a blend of Eastern and Western flavors.


The population of Bosnia and Herzegovina is approximately 3.5 million. It is composed of three main ethnic groups: Bosniaks (the majority), Serbs, and Croats, each with their own language, culture, and religious practices. Despite the divisions that led to the Bosnian War, there’s a growing emphasis on unity and the shared cultural heritage that binds the country’s people together.

Fun Facts

  • Bosnia and Herzegovina is home to one of the last remaining rainforests in Europe, the ancient and primeval Perucica Forest.
  • The country has one of the world’s most diverse ecosystems, with a wide variety of plant and animal species.
  • The historic bridge over the Neretva River in Mostar, a UNESCO World Heritage site, symbolizes the reconciliation and coexistence of diverse cultural, ethnic, and religious communities in Bosnia and Herzegovina.