# Conditionals

In language arts, conditionals are sentences that express hypothetical situations, or situations that depend on certain conditions being met. Conditionals are also known as “if-clauses” because they often begin with the word “if”.

There are four main types of conditionals: zero, first, second, and third conditional. Each type of conditional expresses a different level of probability or likelihood of a hypothetical situation occurring.

## Zero Conditional

The zero conditional is used to describe situations that are always true or that always happen when a certain condition is met. The zero conditional uses the present simple tense in both clauses.

Example: If it rains, the streets get wet.

In this example, the condition is “if it rains” and the result is “the streets get wet”. This sentence expresses a fact that is always true.

## First Conditional

The first conditional is used to describe situations that are likely to happen in the future if a certain condition is met. The first conditional uses the present simple tense in the condition clause and the future simple tense in the result clause.

Example: If I study hard, I will pass the test.

In this example, the condition is “if I study hard” and the result is “I will pass the test”. This sentence expresses a probable outcome based on a specific condition.

## Second Conditional

The second conditional is used to describe situations that are unlikely to happen in the present or future because the condition is not met. The second conditional uses the past simple tense in the condition clause and the present conditional tense in the result clause.

In this example, the condition is “if I had more money” and the result is “I would buy a car”. This sentence expresses an unreal or hypothetical situation.

## Third Conditional

The third conditional is used to describe situations that could have happened differently in the past if a different condition had been met. The third conditional uses the past perfect tense in the condition clause and the present perfect conditional tense in the result clause.

Example: If I had studied harder, I would have passed the test.

In this example, the condition is “if I had studied harder” and the result is “I would have passed the test”. This sentence expresses regret or a missed opportunity in the past.

### Practice

Now, let’s practice using conditionals in sentences:

1. If I ________ (win) the lottery, I ________ (buy) a house.
2. If I ________ (see) my friend tomorrow, we ________ (go) to the movies.
3. If it ________ (snow) tonight, school ________ (be) closed tomorrow.
4. If I ________ (have) more time, I ________ (learn) a new language.