Decimals are an important concept in mathematics that are used in many real-life situations such as measuring and dealing with money. In this lesson, we will explore the basics of decimals, including what they are, how to read and write them, and how to perform basic operations with them.

## What are Decimals?

Decimals are a way of representing numbers that are less than one or whole. They are based on the number 10, and each digit to the right of the decimal point represents a decreasing power of 10. For example, in the number 0.123, the digit 1 is in the tenths place, the digit 2 is in the hundredths place, and the digit 3 is in the thousandths place.

## Reading and Writing Decimals:

To read a decimal, we simply read the digits to the left of the decimal point as a whole number, and then read the digits to the right of the decimal point as individual digits. For example, the number 0.75 can be read as “seventy-five hundredths.”

To write a decimal, we simply write the whole number part followed by a decimal point and then the decimal part. For example, the decimal equivalent of the fraction 3/4 is 0.75.

## Place Value of Decimals:

The place value of a decimal is determined by the position of the digit to the right of the decimal point. The first digit to the right of the decimal point represents the tenths place, the second digit represents the hundredths place, the third digit represents the thousandths place, and so on.

## Operations with Decimals:

The basic operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division can also be performed with decimals, using the same rules as with whole numbers.

## Addition and Subtraction:

When adding or subtracting decimals, it is important to line up the decimal points so that the place values match up. Once the decimal points are lined up, we can add or subtract the digits as we would with whole numbers.

## Multiplication:

To multiply decimals, we simply multiply the digits as we would with whole numbers, ignoring the decimal points. Once we have multiplied the digits, we count the total number of decimal places in the factors and then place the decimal point in the product that many places from the right.

## Division:

To divide decimals, we first move the decimal point in the divisor (the number we are dividing by) to the right until it becomes a whole number. We then move the decimal point in the dividend (the number we are dividing) the same number of places to the right. Once we have done this, we can perform the division as we would with whole numbers.

## Conclusion:

Decimals are an important concept in mathematics that are used in many real-life situations. They are based on the number 10, and each digit to the right of the decimal point represents a decreasing power of 10. To read and write decimals, we simply read the digits to the left of the decimal point as a whole number, and then read the digits to the right of the decimal point as individual digits. We can perform basic operations with decimals using the same rules as with whole numbers.