The human skeleton is made up of bones, cartilage, and ligaments. The skeleton serves as a framework for the body, providing support, protection for vital organs, and enabling movement.

The skeleton can be divided into two main parts: the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton.

Axial Skeleton

The axial skeleton consists of the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage. The skull protects the brain, and the vertebral column protects the spinal cord. The rib cage protects the heart and lungs.

Appendicular Skeleton

The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the limbs (arms and legs), as well as the shoulder and pelvic girdles. The shoulder girdle connects the arms to the body, while the pelvic girdle connects the legs to the body.


Bones are living tissues that are constantly being broken down and rebuilt. They are composed of minerals, primarily calcium and phosphorus, and collagen, a protein that gives bones their flexibility and strength.

There are 206 bones in the human skeleton. Bones come in various shapes and sizes, and serve different purposes.

Types of Bones

There are five types of bones in the human skeleton:

  1. Long Bones – These are the bones of the arms and legs, and are longer than they are wide.
  2. Short Bones – These are the bones of the hands and feet, and are roughly equal in length and width.
  3. Flat Bones – These are the bones of the skull and ribs, and are thin and flat.
  4. Irregular Bones – These are the bones of the spine and pelvis, and have complex shapes.
  5. Sesamoid Bones – These are small, round bones that are embedded in tendons. The kneecap is an example of a sesamoid bone.


Joints are the places where two or more bones meet. There are three main types of joints in the human body:

  1. Fibrous Joints – These are immovable joints, such as the joints between the bones of the skull.
  2. Cartilaginous Joints – These are partially movable joints, such as the joints between the vertebrae of the spine.
  3. Synovial Joints – These are freely movable joints, such as the joints between the bones of the arms and legs.


Muscles attach to bones via tendons, and are responsible for moving the skeleton. There are over 600 muscles in the human body, and they come in three types:

  1. Skeletal Muscle – These are the muscles that are attached to bones and are responsible for voluntary movement.
  2. Smooth Muscle – These are the muscles that line the walls of internal organs, such as the stomach and intestines.
  3. Cardiac Muscle – These are the muscles of the heart, and are responsible for pumping blood throughout the body.

The skeleton is a vital part of the human body, providing support, protection, and enabling movement. Bones, joints, and muscles all work together to make movement possible. Understanding the structure and function of the skeleton is important for maintaining good health and preventing injury.

Food Groups

Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells