Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells

All living things are composed of cells. These cells can be categorized into two main types: eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Eukaryotic cells are found in all multicellular organisms, such as animals, plants, and fungi, while prokaryotic cells are found in single-celled organisms, such as bacteria and archaea.

Structure and Function

One of the main differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells is their structure. Eukaryotic cells are much larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells. They contain many different organelles, including a nucleus that contains the cell’s genetic material. The nucleus is surrounded by a double membrane called the nuclear envelope, which helps to protect the DNA inside.

In contrast, prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus or any other membrane-bound organelles. Instead, their genetic material is contained in a single, circular chromosome that is located in the cytoplasm. Prokaryotic cells also have a cell wall, which helps to provide structure and support to the cell.

Another important difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells is their method of reproduction. Eukaryotic cells reproduce through mitosis and meiosis, while prokaryotic cells reproduce through binary fission.

Finally, eukaryotic cells have a cytoskeleton, which helps to provide structure and support to the cell. This cytoskeleton is made up of microtubules and microfilaments, which help to maintain the cell’s shape and enable it to move.


Examples of eukaryotic cells include animal cells, plant cells, and fungal cells. Animal cells are typically round or irregularly shaped, while plant cells are more rigid and have a rectangular shape. Fungal cells are usually elongated and can form long, branching structures.

Examples of prokaryotic cells include bacteria and archaea. Bacteria are typically rod-shaped or spherical, while archaea are more diverse in shape and can have a variety of different structures.

Eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells differ in many important ways. Eukaryotic cells are larger, more complex, and have a variety of different organelles, while prokaryotic cells are smaller, simpler, and do not have a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles. These differences reflect the evolutionary history and adaptation of these different types of cells to their environments.

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