Subtraction is one of the basic arithmetic operations in mathematics, along with addition, multiplication, and division. It is the process of taking one number away from another to find the difference between them. In this lesson, we will explore the concept of subtraction and how to perform it.

## Basics of Subtraction

Subtraction is often represented by the minus sign (-). To perform a subtraction, you need two numbers: the minuend (the number being subtracted from) and the subtrahend (the number being subtracted).

The process of subtraction involves taking the subtrahend away from the minuend to find the difference. For example, if you are subtracting 5 from 10, you would write it as:

10 – 5 = 5

In this example, 10 is the minuend, 5 is the subtrahend, and 5 is the difference.

Regrouping and Borrowing

Subtraction can become more complex when dealing with larger numbers. In some cases, regrouping or borrowing is necessary.

Regrouping involves breaking down a number into its constituent parts, such as tens and ones. For example, if you are subtracting 7 from 12, you would need to regroup the 12 into 10 and 2:

12 – 7 = (10 + 2) – 7

Borrowing involves taking a number from the next column over to make a subtraction easier. For example, if you are subtracting 6 from 4 in the ones column, you would need to borrow a digit from the tens column:

4 1

- 6

In this case, the 4 is not large enough to subtract 6, so we borrow a digit from the tens column and make it 14 – 6 = 8.

## Practice Exercise

Now that you have learned the basics of subtraction and how to regroup and borrow, let’s try a practice exercise.

- 15 – 8 = ?
- 27 – 13 = ?
- 56 – 28 = ?
- 92 – 47 = ?
- 409 – 287 = ?

Answers:

- 7
- 14
- 28
- 45
- 122

## Conclusion

Subtraction is an important mathematical concept that is used in many different fields. By understanding the basics of subtraction and how to regroup and borrow, you can perform more complex subtractions with ease. Remember to always double-check your work and use the correct mathematical notation to ensure accuracy.