Flerovium (Fl)


  • Symbol: Fl
  • Atomic Number: 114
  • Atomic Weight: [289]
  • Element Classification: Post-transition Metal
  • Discovered By: Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna, Russia) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (California, USA)
  • Discovery Date: 1998
  • Name Origin: Named after the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions where superheavy elements are studied, itself named after Soviet physicist Georgy Flyorov
  • Density(g/cc): Estimated to be around 14 (predicted)
  • Melting Point: 70°C (estimated)
  • Boiling Point: 150°C (estimated)
  • Appearance: Presumed to be a solid under standard conditions, but its actual appearance is unknown due to its extreme radioactivity and scarcity
  • Atomic Radius(pm): Estimated


Flerovium was discovered in 1998 by a collaboration between scientists at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia, and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California, USA. The discovery team, led by Yuri Oganessian, synthesized flerovium by bombarding plutonium-244 with calcium-48 ions. The element was initially known by its temporary name, ununquadium (Uuq), before being officially named flerovium in 2012, in honor of the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (part of the JINR), which itself was named after the renowned Soviet physicist Georgy Flyorov.

Relation to Other Elements

Flerovium is situated in group 14 of the periodic table, below lead, suggesting it might exhibit some similar chemical and physical properties. However, theoretical predictions and limited experimental observations suggest that flerovium may demonstrate a significant deviation from these expectations, including possible noble gas-like behavior due to relativistic effects influencing its electron shell. The exact properties of flerovium are still under investigation, and much of what is known is based on theoretical models.

Natural Occurrence

Flerovium does not occur naturally and is produced synthetically in highly specialized nuclear reactors or particle accelerators.


The applications for flerovium are currently limited to scientific research due to its very short half-life, high radioactivity, and the experimental nature of its production:

  • Scientific Research: Flerovium’s use is predominantly in the realm of scientific studies, particularly those aimed at exploring the properties of superheavy elements. Research involving flerovium seeks to understand its nuclear stability, chemical behavior, and potential placement in the periodic table. These studies are crucial for advancing our knowledge of element synthesis and the theoretical boundaries of the periodic table.

The discovery of flerovium has contributed significantly to the field of nuclear chemistry, particularly in the study of the “island of stability” hypothesis, which predicts increased stability for certain superheavy nuclei. Ongoing research continues to explore the boundaries of atomic structure and the nature of matter at the extremes of the periodic table.

Nihonium (Nh)

Moscovium (Mc)