Livermorium (Lv)


  • Symbol: Lv
  • Atomic Number: 116
  • Atomic Weight: [293]
  • Element Classification: Post-transition Metal
  • Discovered By: Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna, Russia) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (California, USA)
  • Discovery Date: 2000
  • Name Origin: Named after the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the city of Livermore, California
  • Density(g/cc): Estimated to be around 12.9 (predicted)
  • Melting Point: Unknown
  • Boiling Point: Unknown
  • Appearance: Presumed to be a solid under standard conditions, but its actual appearance is unknown due to its extreme radioactivity and scarcity
  • Atomic Radius(pm): Estimated


Livermorium was discovered in 2000 by a collaborative team from the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia, and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California, USA. The element was synthesized by bombarding curium-248 with calcium-48 ions, leading to the production of livermorium-292. The discovery added a new element to the periodic table, which was officially named livermorium in 2012, honoring both the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the city of Livermore, reflecting their contributions to the element’s discovery and nuclear research.

Relation to Other Elements

Livermorium is expected to be part of group 16 in the periodic table, beneath polonium, suggesting it might exhibit some properties characteristic of post-transition metals. Due to its position in the periodic table, livermorium could share chemical behaviors with its lighter homologues; however, significant relativistic effects anticipated for superheavy elements may alter its properties. The chemical and physical properties of livermorium are primarily theoretical or based on very limited experimental observations.

Natural Occurrence

Livermorium does not occur naturally and is produced synthetically in particle accelerators through the collision of atomic nuclei.


The applications for livermorium are currently limited to scientific research, owing to its short half-life, intense radioactivity, and the experimental nature of its production:

  • Scientific Research: Livermorium’s use is predominantly in the realm of scientific studies, particularly those aimed at exploring the properties and behaviors of superheavy elements. Research involving livermorium seeks to understand its atomic structure, nuclear stability, and potential chemical properties, contributing to the expansion of our knowledge of the periodic table and the principles of nuclear physics.

The discovery of livermorium represents an important achievement in the field of nuclear chemistry and physics, demonstrating the capabilities of modern science to synthesize and study elements that extend the known boundaries of the periodic table. While practical applications are beyond reach at present, the ongoing investigation into livermorium and other superheavy elements continues to challenge and refine our understanding of atomic matter.


Moscovium (Mc)

Tennessine (Ts)