Organic Chemistry

Organic Chemistry is the study of compounds containing carbon, which are called organic compounds. Carbon is a unique element because it can form four strong covalent bonds with other atoms, which allows it to create a nearly infinite number of compounds. Organic Chemistry is a vast field of study, and we will only be scratching the surface in this lesson.

Basics of Organic Chemistry:

Organic compounds are found everywhere in nature and are essential for life. Some examples of organic compounds are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. These compounds are the building blocks of life and are responsible for all biological processes.


Carbon is the building block of organic compounds, and it has four valence electrons. Carbon can form single, double, and triple bonds with other elements like hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur. These bonds can create complex structures like rings, chains, and branches.

Functional Groups:

Functional groups are specific atoms or groups of atoms that give organic compounds their unique properties. These groups include hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl, amino, and phosphate groups. The presence of these groups determines the physical and chemical properties of organic compounds.


Isomers are compounds that have the same molecular formula but different structures. These structures can be different in the way the atoms are arranged or the way they are connected. Isomers can have different physical and chemical properties, even though they have the same molecular formula.

Organic Reactions:

Organic reactions are chemical reactions that involve organic compounds. These reactions can include addition, elimination, substitution, and rearrangement. These reactions can be catalyzed by enzymes, acids, bases, or other catalysts.


Polymers are large molecules made up of repeating units called monomers. Polymers can be natural or synthetic and have a wide range of applications. Some examples of natural polymers include proteins, DNA, and cellulose. Synthetic polymers include plastics, fibers, and rubbers.

Organic Synthesis:

Organic synthesis is the process of creating organic compounds from simpler molecules. This process can be achieved through various methods, including addition, elimination, and substitution reactions. Organic synthesis is a crucial field in the development of new drugs, materials, and technologies.

Organic Chemistry is a complex and diverse field, and we have only covered the basics. If you are interested in learning more about Organic Chemistry, there are many resources available online and in textbooks.


Chemistry Lab Equipment