Water is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless liquid that is essential for all forms of life on Earth. It is the most abundant substance on the surface of the planet and is often referred to as the universal solvent due to its ability to dissolve a wide range of substances. In this lesson, we will explore the unique properties of water and how they contribute to its role as the universal solvent.

Chemical Composition of Water:

Water is a simple molecule consisting of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom, with the chemical formula H2O. The hydrogen atoms are covalently bonded to the oxygen atom, forming a bent molecular geometry. This arrangement creates a polar molecule with a slightly negative charge at the oxygen end and a slightly positive charge at the hydrogen ends. This polarity plays a crucial role in the many properties of water.

Properties of Water:

High Heat Capacity:

Water has a high heat capacity, which means it can absorb and retain large amounts of heat without significant changes in temperature. This property is crucial in regulating the temperature of living organisms and environments.

High Surface Tension:

Water molecules are attracted to each other through hydrogen bonding, creating a cohesive force that results in high surface tension. This property allows water to form droplets and maintain its shape, making it an ideal habitat for aquatic organisms.

High Boiling and Freezing Points:

Water has a high boiling and freezing point due to its strong intermolecular forces, which require a large amount of energy to break. This property allows water to exist as a liquid over a wide range of temperatures, making it an ideal solvent for many chemical reactions.

Universal Solvent:

Due to its polarity, water is an excellent solvent for many polar and ionic substances. The polar water molecules attract the opposite charged ions or molecules, surround them and dissolve them, which allows water to transport and react with various substances in our environment.

Density Anomaly:

Water has a unique density anomaly, meaning that its solid form (ice) is less dense than its liquid form. This property allows ice to float on top of liquid water, providing insulation for aquatic life in cold environments and preventing bodies of water from freezing solid.

Uses of Water:


Water is essential for all forms of life, including humans, and is a primary component of most living organisms.


Water is vital for agricultural production and is often used for irrigation and crop production.

Industrial Processes:

Water is used in many industrial processes, such as cooling, cleaning, and as a solvent in chemical reactions.

Energy Production:

Water is used in the production of electricity through hydroelectric power plants and as a coolant in nuclear power plants.

Water is a unique and essential substance with many properties that contribute to its role as the universal solvent. It is important in many aspects of life, including agriculture, industry, and energy production. As we continue to rely on water, it is essential to consider the impact of human activities on this valuable resource and take steps to preserve it for future generations.

10 Facts About Water

  1. Water is the only substance found naturally on Earth in three states of matter: solid (ice), liquid, and gas (water vapor).
  2. Water is the only substance that expands when it freezes, which is why ice floats on top of liquid water.
  3. Water is a universal solvent, which means it can dissolve more substances than any other liquid on Earth.
  4. In some cultures, it is believed that water has healing properties and can cure various illnesses.
  5. The amount of water on Earth has remained relatively constant for the past two billion years, but it’s constantly changing forms and locations through the water cycle.
  6. Nearly 97% of the world’s water is saltwater and only about 3% is freshwater.
  7. Water can be used to generate electricity through hydropower, which is a renewable and clean energy source.
  8. Water can exist in a supercooled state, meaning it remains liquid below its freezing point. This phenomenon is rare but has been observed in laboratory experiments.
  9. Water is a polar molecule, meaning it has a positive and negative end, which allows it to dissolve many substances and play a crucial role in chemical reactions in living organisms.
  10. A group of researchers has discovered water molecules that are much older than our solar system, suggesting that water is not unique to Earth and may be present in other parts of the universe.

Salts and Soaps

Organic Chemistry