Chemical Bonding

Chemical bonding refers to the attraction that holds atoms or ions together in a chemical compound. There are three types of chemical bonds: covalent bonds, ionic bonds, and metallic bonds.

Covalent Bonding

In a covalent bond, two atoms share electrons in order to achieve a stable electron configuration. This occurs most commonly between nonmetallic elements, such as hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. The shared electrons form a bond that keeps the atoms together, and the resulting molecule is called a covalent compound.

For example, in the molecule H2O, the oxygen atom shares two electrons with two hydrogen atoms, resulting in a stable molecule with a bent shape.

Ionic Bonding

In an ionic bond, one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another, resulting in the formation of ions. The oppositely charged ions attract each other and form an ionic compound. This type of bond usually occurs between a metal and a nonmetal.

For example, in the compound NaCl (sodium chloride), the sodium atom donates an electron to the chlorine atom, resulting in a positively charged sodium ion (Na+) and a negatively charged chloride ion (Cl-). The ions are attracted to each other, forming an ionic bond.

Metallic Bonding

In a metallic bond, the valence electrons are delocalized and shared among all the atoms in the metal. This results in a lattice structure where each metal atom is attracted to its neighboring atoms by a strong metallic bond. Metallic bonding is responsible for the properties of metals, such as their high thermal and electrical conductivity.

For example, in the metal copper (Cu), the valence electrons are shared among all the copper atoms in the lattice, resulting in a strong metallic bond that gives copper its characteristic properties.

Chemical bonding is essential in the formation of all compounds, and the type of bond that forms depends on the properties of the elements involved. Understanding chemical bonding is important in fields such as chemistry, biology, and materials science.

Melting and boiling

Chemical reactions