Melting and boiling

Melting and boiling are two common processes that occur when substances change from one state of matter to another. These processes are related to the amount of energy that the particles of a substance have and how they move.

The melting process

Melting is the process by which a solid substance changes into a liquid state. When a solid is heated, its particles gain energy and start to move faster. At a certain temperature, called the melting point, the energy of the particles becomes enough to break the bonds that hold them together in a rigid structure. As a result, the particles become free to move past each other, and the solid turns into a liquid.

For example, ice melts at 0 degrees Celsius to form liquid water.

The boiling process

Boiling is the process by which a liquid substance changes into a gaseous state. When a liquid is heated, its particles gain energy and move even faster. At a certain temperature, called the boiling point, the energy of the particles becomes enough to overcome the attractive forces between them, and the liquid turns into a gas. Boiling can also occur when the pressure on a liquid is reduced, which lowers its boiling point. For example, water boils at 100 degrees Celsius at standard atmospheric pressure, but it boils at a lower temperature at higher altitudes.

The melting and boiling points of a substance depend on several factors, including the strength of the forces between its particles and the size and shape of its molecules. For example, substances with strong intermolecular forces, like metals, have high melting and boiling points, while substances with weak intermolecular forces, like gases, have low melting and boiling points.

Melting and boiling are important processes that occur when substances change from one state of matter to another. These processes are influenced by the energy and movement of particles and the strength of the forces between them.

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